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Meteorology --> Atmosphere/Temperature Pressure/Wind Moisture/storms
Climatology --> Climatology Climate Reconstruction
Change & Warming
Applied Climatology
CLIMATOLOGY CHAPTERS -----> Regional Climates Reconstruction Change Warming

Climatology

I. CLIMATE CONCEPTS

A.   Climate Controls

  1. latitude
  2. altitude
  3. land/water relationship
  4. ocean currents
  5. atmospheric circulation (winds)
  6. topographic barriers
B.   Climatic Scales
  1. microclimate
  2. local climate
  3. mesoclimate
  4. macroclimate
C.   Classification Systems
  1. Organize, Simplify and Generalize Data
  2. Similarities vs. Dissimilarities
  3. Greek classification system (latitude based)
    • torrid zone
    • temperate zone
    • frigid zone
    • ... or winterless, summerless, and both winter & summer?
  4. Thornthwaite System
    • potential evapotranspiration
II. MODIFIED KÖPPEN CLIMATE SYSTEM

(based on vegetation types)

A.   Three letter system (descriptive terms)

  1. First (upper case) letter is a general temperature profile based on latitude:
    A -- tropical rainy
    • torrid / winterless
    • coolest month > 64°F
    B -- dry / arid climates
    • relationship between temperature and evapotranspiration.
    • subdivisions based on temps, precip pattern
    • ... even prevalence of fog
    C -- midlatitude rainy, mild winter
    • warm temperate (January temps)
    • coolest month > 27°F
    • warmest month > 50°F
    D -- midlatitude rainy, cold winter
    • cold temperate
    • coolest month < 27°F
    • warmest month > 50°F
    E -- Polar climates
    • frigid / summerless
    • warmest month < 50°F
    H -- highland climates
    • mountainous terrain = rapid elevation & slope changes
    • cause rapid climatic changes over short distances
    • cool/cold climate

  2. Second letter (lower case) = additional precision in precipitation pattern:

    f -- wet year-round
    s -- dry summer season
    w -- dry winter season (precip follows sun)
    m -- monsoon

  3. Third letter (lower case) = additional precision in temperature pattern:

    a -- hot summer
    b -- warm summer
    c -- cool summer
    d -- very cold winters

B.   "Extra" Letters
  1. ET / EF
  2. BS / BW
    • h = "hot" (avg. annual temp >64°F)
    • k = "cold" (avg. annual temp <64°F)
  3. and still more...


CLIMATOLOGY CHAPTERS -----> Regional Climates Reconstruction Change Warming